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Selected publications from Hakai researchers, scholars & partners


Armstrong, C.G., A.C. Shoemaker, I. McKechnie, A. Ekblom, P. Szabó, P.J. Lane, A.C. McAlvay, O.J. Boles, S. Walshaw, N. Petek, K.S. Gibbons, E.Q. Morales, E.N. Anderson, A. Ibragimow, G. Podruczny, J.C. Vamosi, T. Marks-Block, J.K. LeCompte, S. Awâsis, C. Nabess, P. Sinclair, and C.L. Crumley. 2017. Anthropological contributions to historical ecology: 50 questions, infinite prospects. PLOS ONE 12(2): e0171883.
Neudorf, C.M., N. Smith, D. Lepofsky, G. Toniello, and O.B. Lian. 2017. Between a rock and a soft place: Using optical ages to date ancient clam gardens on the Pacific Northwest. PLOS ONE 12(2): e0171775.
Fedje, D. and D. McLaren. 2016. Hakai, a late-glacial to early holocene paleoshoreline ‘sweet spot’ on the west coast of Canada. In Marine Ventures Archaeological Perspectives on Human-sea Relations, edited by H. Bjerck, H. Breivik, S. Fretheim, E. Piana, B. Skar, A. Tivoli, and A. Zangrando, Equinox Publishing, Sheffield: 95-103.
Gauvreau, A., and D. McLaren. 2016. Stratigraphy and storytelling: Imbricating Indigenous oral narratives and archaeology on the Northwest Coast of North America. Hunter Gatherer Research 2(3): 303-325.
McKechnie, I., and M.L. Moss. 2016. Meta-analysis in zooarchaeology expands perspectives on Indigenous fisheries of the Northwest Coast of North America. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports.
Ritchie, M., D. Lepofsky, S. Formosa, M. Porcic, and K. Edinborough. 2016. Beyond culture history: Coast Salish settlement patterning and demography in the Fraser Valley, BC. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 43: 140-154.
Lepofsky, D., N.F. Smith, N. Cardinal, J. Harper, M. Morris, Gitla (E. White), R. Bouchard, D.I.D. Kennedy, A.K. Salomon, M. Puckett, K. Rowell, and E.M. McLay. 2015. Ancient shellfish mariculture on the Northwest Coast of North America. American Antiquity 80(2): 236-259.
McKechnie, I. 2015. Indigenous oral history and settlement archaeology in Barkley Sound, western Vancouver Island. BC Studies 187: 193-228.
McKechnie, I, G.G. Singh, T.J. Braje, and B. Campbell. 2015. Measuring Mytilus californianus: An Addendum to Campbell and Braje (2015) and Singh and McKechnie (2015) including commentary and an integration of data. Journal of Archaeological Science 58(6): 184-186.
McKechnie, I., S.W. Kansa, and S. Wolverton. 2015. Snapshots of digital scholarship in zooarchaeology: Introduction to the special issue. Ethnobiology Letters 6(2): 1-6.
McLaren D., F. Rahemtulla, Gitla (E. White), and D. Fedje. 2015. Prerogatives, sea level, and the strength of persistent places: Archaeological evidence for long-term occupation of the Central Coast of British Columbia. BC Studies 187: 155-191.
McMillan, A.D., and I. McKechnie. 2015. Investigating Indigenous adaptations to British Columbia’s exposed outer coast: Introduction to these outer shores. BC Studies 187: 3-20.
R. Shinmei, T. Kanno, N. Yamamoto, J. Hanyu, A. Matsui, D. McLaren, and D.R. Croes. 2015. Survey on prehistoric remains in Toriket Island, Canada. Archeology Studies 62: 15-20.
Singh G.G., and I. McKechnie. 2015. Making the most of fragments: a method for estimating shell length from fragmentary mussels (Mytilus californianus and Mytilus trossulus) on the Pacific Coast of North America. Journal of Archaeological Science 58(6): 175–183.
McKechnie, I., D. Lepofsky, M.L. Moss, V.L. Butler, T.J. Orchard, G. Coupland, F. Foster, M. Caldwell, and K. Lertzman. 2014. Archaeological data provide alternative hypotheses on Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) distribution, abundance, and variability. PNAS 111(9).
McLaren D., D. Fedje, M.B. Hay, Q. Mackie, I.J. Walker, D.H. Shugar, J.B.R. Eamer, O.B. Lian, and C. Neudorf. 2014. A post-glacial sea level hinge on the central Pacific coast of Canada. Quaternary Science Reviews 97: 148-169.
Mackie, Q., L. Davis, D. Fedje, D. McLaren, and A. Gusick. 2013. Locating Pleistocene-age submerged archaeological sites on the Northwest Coast: Current status of research and future directions. In Paleoamerican Odyssey, edited by K.E. Graf, C.V. Ketron and M.R. Waters, Center for the Study of the First Americans, Department of Anthropology, Texas A&M University: 133-147.

Earth Sciences

Eamer, J.B.R., D.H. Shugar, I.J. Walker, O.B. Lian, and C.M. Neudorf. 2017. Distinguishing depositional setting for sandy deposits In coastal landscapes using grain shape. Journal of Sedimentary Research 87(1).
Eamer, J.B.R., D.H. Shugar, I.J. Walker, O.B. Lian, C.M. Neudorf, and A.M. Telka. 2017. A glacial readvance during retreat of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, British Columbia central coast. Quaternary Research 87(3): 468-481.
Barnard, P.L., A.D. Short, M.D. Harley, K.D. Splinter, S. Vitousek, I.L. Turner, J. Allan, M. Banno, K.R. Bryan, A. Doria, J.E. Hansen, S. Kato, Y. Kuriyama, E. Randall-Goodwin, P. Ruggiero, I.J. Walker, and D.K. Heathfield. 2015. Coastal vulnerability across the Pacific dominated by El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Nature Geoscience 8(10).
Heathfield, D.K. and I.J. Walker. 2015. Evolution of a foredune and backshore river complex on a high-energy, drift-aligned beach. Geomorphology 248: 440-451.
Mathewes, R.W., O.B. Lian, J.J. Clague, and M.J.W. Huntley. 2015. Early Wisconsinan (MIS4) glaciation on Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, and implications for biological refugia. Can. J. Earth Sci. 52: 939-951.
Neudorf C.M., O.B. Lian, I.J. Walker, D.H. Shugar, J.B.R. Eamer, and L.C.M. Griffin. 2015. Toward a luminescence chronology for coastal dune and beach deposits on Calvert Island, British Columbia central coast, Canada. Quaternary Geochronology 30: 275-281.
Roberts, R.G., and O.B. Lian. 2015. Dating techniques: Illuminating the past. Nature 520: 438-439.
Shugar, D.H., I.J. Walker, O.B. Lian, J.B.R. Eamer, C. Neudorf, D. McLaren, and D. Fedje. 2014. Post-glacial sea-level change along the Pacific coast of North America. Quaternary Science Reviews 97: 170-192.


Keeling, B, M. Hessing-Lewis, C. Housty, D.K. Okamoto, E.J Gregr, and A.K. Salomon. 2017. Factors driving spatial variation in egg survival of an ecologically and culturally important forage fish. Aquatic Conservation.
Krumhansl, K.A., J.N. Bergman, and A.K. Salomon. 2017. Assessing the ecosystem-level consequences of a small-scale artisanal kelp fishery within the context of climate-change. Ecological Applications 27(3): 799-813.
Pakhomov, E.A and B.P.V. Hunt. 2017. Trans-Atlantic variability in ecology of the pelagic tunicate Salpa thompsoni near the Antarctic Polar Front. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 138: 126-140.
Shackelford, N., B.M. Starzomski, N.C. Banning, L.L. Battaglia, A. Becker, P.J. Bellingham, B. Bestelmeyer, J.A. Catford, J.M. Dwyer, M. Dynesius, J. Gilmour, L.M. Hallett, R.J. Hobbs, J. Price, T. Sasaki, E.V.J. Tanner, and R.J. Standish. 2017. Isolation predicts compositional change after discrete disturbances in a global meta-study. Ecography 40.
Hind, K.R., P.W. Gabrielson, C.P. Jensen, and P.T. Martone. 2016. Crusticorallina gen. nov., a nongeniculate genus in the subfamily Corallinoideae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 52: 929-941.
Hoffman, K., D.G. Gavin, and B.M. Starzomski. 2016. Seven hundred years of human-driven and climate-influenced fire activity in a British Columbia coastal temperate rainforest. Royal Society Open Science 3: 160608.
Hoffman, K.M., D.G. Gavin, K.P. Lertzman, D.J. Smith, and B.M. Starzomski. 2016. 13,000 years of fire history derived from soil charcoal in a British Columbia coastal temperate rain forest. Ecosphere 7(7).
Krumhansl, K.A., D.K. Okamoto, A. Rassweiler, M. Novak, J.J. Bolton, K.C. Cavanaugh, S.D. Connell, C.R. Johnson, B. Konar, S.D. Ling, F. Micheli, K.M. Norderhaug, A. Pérez-Matus, I. Sousa-Pinto, D.C. Reed, A.K. Salomon, N.T. Shears, T. Wernberg, R.J. Anderson, N.S. Barrett, A.H. Buschmann, M.H. Carr, J.E. Caselle, S. Derrien-Courtel, G.J. Edgar, M. Edwards, J.A. Estes, C. Goodwin, M.C. Kenner, D.J. Kushner, F.E. Moy, J. Nunn, R.S. Steneck, J. Vásquez, J. Watson, J.D. Witman, and J.E.K. Byrnes. 2016. Global patterns of kelp forest change over the past half-century. PNAS.
Lee, L.C., J.C. Watson, R. Trebilco, and A.K. Salomon. 2016. Indirect effects and prey behavior mediate interactions between an endangered prey and recovering predator. Ecosphere 7(12): e01604.
Rechsteiner, E. and A. Olson. 2016. Harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) scavenge sea urchin fragments from foraging sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Canadian Field-Naturalist 130(2): 91-98.
Starko, S. and P.T. Martone. 2016. An empirical test of ‘universal’ biomass scaling relationships in kelps: evidence of convergence with seed plants. New Phytologist 212: 719-729.
Stevenson, C.F., K.W. Demes, and A.K. Salomon. 2016. Accounting for size-specific predation improves our ability to predict the strength of a trophic cascade. Ecology and Evolution.
Thompson, S.D., T.A. Nelson, I. Giesbrecht, G. Frazer, and S.C. Saunders. 2016. Data-driven regionalization of forested and non-forested ecosystems in coastal British Columbia with LiDAR and RapidEye imagery. Applied Geography 69: 35-50.
Trant, A.J., W. Nijland, K.M. Hoffman, D.L. Mathews, D. McLaren, T.A. Nelson, and B.M. Starzomski. 2016. Intertidal resource use over millennia enhances forest productivity. Nature Communications 7: 12491.
Harding, J.M.S., M.R. Segal, and J.D. Reynolds. 2015. Location is everything: Evaluating the effects of terrestrial and marine resource subsidies on an estuarine bivalve. PLOS ONE 10(5): e0125167.
Hind, K.R., K.A. Miller, M. Young, C. Jensen, P.W. Gabrielson, and P.T. Martone. 2015. Resolving cryptic species of Bossiella (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) using contemporary and historical DNA. American Journal of Botany 102(11): 1912-1930.
Krumhansl, K.A., K.W. Demes, E. Carrington, and C.D.G. Harley. 2015. Divergent growth strategies between red algae and kelps influence biomechanical properties. American Journal of Botany.
Trant, A.J., B.M. Starzomski, and E. Higgs. 2015. A publically available database for studying ecological change in mountain ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 13(4): 187.
Bryan, H.M., C.T. Darimont, P.C. Paquet, K.E. Wynne-Edwards, and J.E. Smits. 2014. Stress and reproductive hormones reflect inter-specific social and nutritional conditions mediated by resource availability in a bear-salmon system. Conservation Physiology 2(1).
Harding, J.M.S. and J.D. Reynolds. 2014. From earth and ocean: Investigating the importance of cross-ecosystem resource linkages to a mobile estuarine consumer. Ecosphere 5(5).
Harding, J.N. and J.D. Reynolds. 2014. Opposing forces: Evaluating multiple ecological roles of Pacific salmon in coastal stream ecosystems. Ecosphere 5(12).
Harding, J.N., J.M.S. Harding, and J.D. Reynolds. 2014. Movers and shakers: nutrient subsides and benthic disturbance predict biofilm biomass and stable isotopes in coastal streams. Freshwater Biology 59(7): 1361-1377.
Service, C.N., M.S. Adams, K.A. Artelle, P.C. Paquet, L.V. Grant, and C.T. Darimont. 2014. Indigenous knowledge and science unite to reveal spatial and temporal dimensions of distributional shift in wildlife of conservation concern. PLOS ONE 9(7): e101595.
Stocks, A.P., E.A. Pakhomov, and B.P.V. Hunt. 2014. A simple method to assess the marine environment residence duration of juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) using laser ablation. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 71(10): 1437-1446.
Bryan, H.M., C.T. Darimont, P.C. Paquet, K.E. Wynne-Edwards, and J.E. Smits. 2013. Stress and reproductive hormones in grizzly bears reflect nutritional benefits and social consequences of a salmon niche. PLOS ONE 8(11): e80537.


Gawryluk, R.M.R., J. del Campo, N. Okamoto, J.F.H. Strassert, J. Lukeš, T.A. Richards, A.Z. Worden, A.E. Santoro, and P.J. Keeling. 2016. Morphological identification and single-cell genomics of marine diplonemids. Current Biology 26(22): 3053-3059.
Herranz, M. and B.S. Leander. 2016. Redescription of Echinoderes ohtsukai Yamasaki and Kajihara, 2012 and E. kozloffi Higgins, 1977 from the northeastern Pacific coast, including the first report of a potential invasive species of kinorhynch. Zoologischer Anzeiger.
Fontaneto, D. and J. Hortal. 2013. At least some protist species are not ubiquitous. Molecular Ecology 22: 5053-5055.
Heger, T.J., E.A.D. Mitchell, and B.S. Leander. 2013. Holarctic phylogeography of the testate amoeba Hyalosphenia papilio (Amoebozoa: Arcellinida) reveals extensive genetic diversity explained more by environment than dispersal limitation. Molecular Ecology 22: 5172–5184.

Policy and Resource Management

Gauvreau, A.M., D. Lepofsky, M. Rutherford, and M. Reid. 2017. “Everything revolves around the herring”: the Heiltsuk–herring relationship through time. Ecology and Society 22(2): 10.
Moore, M., S. von der Porten, and H. Castleden. 2017. Consultation is not consent: Hydraulic fracturing and water governance on Indigenous lands in Canada. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Water 4: e1180.
Savo, V., C. Morton, and D. Lepofsky. 2017. Impacts of climate change for coastal fishers and implications for fisheries. Fish and Fisheries.
Treves, A., K.A. Artelle, C.T. Darimont, and D.R. Parsons. 2017. Mismeasured mortality: correcting estimates of wolf poaching in the United States. Journal of Mammalogy: 1-9.
Artelle, K.A., S.C. Anderson, J.D. Reynolds, A.B. Cooper, P.C. Paquet, and C.T. Darimont. 2016. Ecology of conflict: marine food supply affects human-wildlife interactions on land. Scientific Reports 6: 25936.
Green, S.J., K. Demes, M. Arbeider, W.J. Palen, A.K. Salomon, T.D. Sisk, M. Webster, and M.E. Ryan. 2016. Oil sands and the marine environment: current knowledge and future challenges. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.
Jackley, J., L. Gardner, A.F. Djunaedi, and A.K. Salomon. 2016. Ancient clam gardens, traditional management portfolios, and the resilience of coupled human-ocean systems. Ecology and Society 21(4): 20.
Mori, A.S., K.P. Lertzman, and L. Gustafsson. 2016. Biodiversity and ecosystem services in forest ecosystems: a research agenda for applied forest ecology. Journal of Applied Ecology.
Savo, V., D. Lepofsky, J.P. Benner, K.E. Kohfeld, J. Bailey, and K. Lertzman. 2016. Observations of climate change among subsistence-oriented communities around the world. Nature Climate Change 6: 462-473.
Turner, N.J.. 2016. “We give them seaweed”: Social economic exchange and resilience in Northwestern North America . Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 15(1): 5-15.
von der Porten, S., D. Lepofsky, D. McGregor, and J. Silver. 2016. Recommendations for marine herring policy change in Canada: Aligning with Indigenous legal and inherent rights. Marine Policy 74: 68-76.
Child, K.R. and C.T. Darimont. 2015. Hunting for trophies: Online hunting photographs reveal achievement satisfaction with large and dangerous prey. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 20(6): 531-541.
Darimont, C.T., C.H. Fox, H.M. Bryan, and T.E. Reimchen. 2015. The unique ecology of human predators. Science 349(6,250): 858-860.
von der Porten, S., R. de Loë, and R. Plummer. 2015. Collaborative environmental governance and Indigenous Peoples: Recommendations for practice. Environmental Practice 17(2): 134-144.
Adams, M., J. Carpenter, J.A. Housty, D. Neasloss, P.C. Paquet, C.N. Service, J. Walkus, and C.T. Darimont. 2014. Towards increased engagement between academic and indigenous community partners in ecological research. Ecology and Society 19(3): 5.
Alava, J.J. and J.N. Silberg. 2014. Delisted whales good news for pipeline. Science 345(6,194): 278-279.
Artelle, K.A., J.D. Reynolds, P.C. Paquet, and C.T. Darimont. 2014. When scientific management isn’t. Science 343(6,177): 1311.
Klain, S.C., R. Beveridge, and N.J. Bennett. 2014. Ecologically sustainable but unjust? Negotiating equity and authority in common-pool marine resource management. Ecology and Society 19(4): 52.
Lagasse, C.R., W. Ou, L.D. Honka, W.I. Atlas, C.N. Hutton, J. Kotaska, and M.D. Hocking. 2014. Design considerations for community-based stream monitoring to detect changes in Pacific salmon habitats. Ecology and Society 19(4): 19.
Artelle, K.A., S.C. Anderson, A.B. Cooper, P.C. Paquet, J.D. Reynolds, and C.T. Darimont. 2013. Confronting uncertainty in wildlife management: performance of grizzly bear management in British Columbia, Canada. PLOS ONE 8(11): e78041.
N. Turner and P.R. Spalding. 2013. “We might go back to this”; Drawing on the past to meet the future in northwestern North American Indigenous communities. Ecology and Society 18(4): 29.


Iversen, M.H., E.A. Pakhomov, B.P.V. Hunt, H. van der Jagt, D. Wolf-Gladrow, and C. Klaas. 2017. Sinkers or floaters? Contribution from salp pellets to the export flux during a large bloom event in the Southern Ocean. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 138: 116-125.
Bakker, D.C.E., B. Pfeil, C.S. Landa, N. Metzl, K.M. O'Brien, A. Olsen,...W. Evans,...S. Xu. 2016. A multi-decade record of high-quality fCO2 data in version 3 of the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT). Earth Systems Science Data Discussion 8: 383-413.
Evans, W., and H. Gurney-Smith. 2016. A novel carbonate system time series from a highly resolved site in the Northern Salish Sea, p. 135-138. In Chandler, P.C., King, S.A., and Perry, R.I. (Eds.). State of the physical, biological and selected fishery resources of Pacific Canadian marine ecosystems in 2015. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 3179: viii + 230 p.
Giesbrecht, I.J.W., B. Floyd, M. Korver, B.P.V. Hunt, K. Lertzman, A. Oliver, and S. Tank. 2016. Monitoring pluvial watershed dynamics on the Central Coast (Calvert Island): Sensor and sampling data from 2013-2015, p. 214-217. In Chandler, P.C., King, S.A., and Perry, R.I. (Eds.). State of the physical, biological and selected fishery resources of Pacific Canadian marine ecosystems in 2015. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 3179: viii + 230 p.
Hunt, B.P.V., J.M. Jackson, A.A. Hare, and K. Wang. 2016. Hakai oceanography program: Central Coast and Northern Straight of Georgia time series, p. 127-131. In Chandler, P.C., King, S.A., and Perry, R.I. (Eds.). State of the physical, biological and selected fishery resources of Pacific Canadian marine ecosystems in 2015. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 3179: viii + 230 p.
Jacob, W., B.P.V. Hunt, W. Evans, R. Smith, and S. Hateley. 2016. Hakai Institute's growing marine sensor network, p. 223-224. In Chandler, P.C., King, S.A., and Perry, R.I. (Eds.). State of the physical, biological and selected fishery resources of Pacific Canadian marine ecosystems in 2015. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 3179: viii + 230 p.
Steiner, N.S., T. Sou, C. Deal, J.M. Jackson, M. Jin, E. Popova, W. Williams, and A. Yool. 2016. The future of the subsurface chlorophyll-a maximum in the Canada Basin—A model intercomparison. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans.
Guan, L., J.F. Dower, S.M. McKinnell, P. Pepin, E.A. Pakhomov, and B.P.V. Hunt. 2015. A comparison of spring larval fish assemblages in the Strait of Georgia (British Columbia, Canada) between the early 1980s and late 2000s. Progress in Oceanography.
Wolfe, A.M, S.E. Allen, M. Hodal, R. Pawlowicz, B.P.V. Hunt, and D.Tommasi. 2015. Impact of advection loss due to wind and estuarine circulation on the timing of the spring phytoplankton bloom in a fjord. ICES Journal of Marine Science.
Tommasi, D., B.P.V. Hunt, S.E. Allen, R. Routledge, and E.A. Pakhomov. 2014. Variability in the vertical distribution and advective transport of eight mesozooplankton taxa in spring in Rivers Inlet, British Columbia, Canada. Journal of Plankton Research 36(3): 743-756.
Tommasi, D.A.G., R.D. Routledge, B.P.V. Hunt, and E.A. Pakhomov. 2013. The seasonal development of the zooplankton community in a British Columbia (Canada) fjord during two years with different spring bloom timing. Marine Biology Research 9(2): 129-144.